OUR GRADING SYSTEM

    Mint - (C10) Investment quality. No perceptible flaws of any kind.
    Near Mint
    - (C9) Investment quality. Minor flaw on an otherwise unused poster.
    Excellent
    - (C8) Investment quality. A few minor defects.
    Very Good to Excellent - Fine condition
    - (C7)Still a very nicely preserved item.
    Very Good
    - (C6) The typical used poster in average condition.
    Good to Very Good
    - (C5) A heavily-worn item.
    Good
    - (C4) Below average but still suitable for display.
    Fair
    - (C3) Heavily worn, but yet still complete.
    Poor to Fair
    - (C2) An extremely worn, possibly even incomplete item.
    Poor
    - (C1) The lowest grade, representing items in the lowest possible condition.

WARREN'S I-GUIDE
10-GRADE SYSTEM

Developed recently by Jon Warren, this 10-grade system is designed to make grading movie posters more comparable to other collectible hobbies. These descriptions were taken from the Iguide Movie Poster Prices publication.


MINT (C10) - Item is "as new" or in the same condition as the day it was made. The item may or may not literally be in "perfect" condition, but it does exhibit an amazing state of preservation with virtually no perceptible flaws of any kind, other than very minor flaws that may have occurred during the printing process. Printing registration should be perfect. In many cases, an otherwise "mint" poster may have printing flaws in the registration, or alignment, of colors causing one color to stand slightly offset from the others. The folding/trimming process should not have resulted in any damage to the item of any kind. Sometimes a poster may have slight fold lines that occurred when the poster was put through the folding machine. If the fold line broke the ink, causing a faint white line, the item should not be grated C10. No edge fraying or dents/impressions are allows in this grade.
  (TOP)

NEAR MINT (C9) - Superb. Unused or very carefully used, but with some minor storage defect, minor tear, one pinhole in each corner or some other very minor flaw on an otherwise unused poster. Item may be in "never-used" condition or may have been used in the theatre, but was carefully preserved after use. One tiny pinhole in each corner from being displayed is allowable in this grade. Slightly offset color registration is allowable in this grade. Very slight compression marks (indentations) from movie theatre use (i.e. Clamped in a display) are allowable in this grade. No edge fraying. One Sheets, which were normally quarter-folded until recent times, may have very slight fold wear, if such wear does not significantly affect the eye appeal of the image. Folds haven't damaged print.  (TOP)

EXCELLENT (C8)  - Commonly referred to as Condition A or Very Fine. Item may be in "never-used" condition or may have been used in the theater, but was carefully preserved after use. If a C9 is almost like new, then a C8 is not far behind a C9. An above-average poster exhibiting minimal signs of use. Bright and clean. Poster has no major defects but could have an accumulation of several minor ones, such as a small (1/8" or less) border chip. No creases on lobby cards, but normal/minor creases on one sheets and larger posters is to be expected. A handful of small pinholes or border tears could be present. Aging on older pieces could be present. Paper could be slightly yellowed, but not brown. Minimal or slight restoration could be present if professionally done. There may be signs of wear and use, such as folds or creases (except on lobby cards), possibly a minor border tear, or pinholes in the border. Not soiled; clean and bright. No frontal tape repairs are allowed in this grade, but possibly one very minor tape repair to the back of the piece. Window cards may have written or printed banners. The image area of the poster should be undamaged. Poster should be bright, supple, and clean. May exhibit more fold wear than a C9, but without significant color loss in the fold areas. A slight amount of color loss is acceptable in this grade, but if the fold wear is such that a heavy solid white line results from loss of color due to wear, then the item would not qualify for a C8 rating. No edge wrinkling or fraying is allowed in this grade. No tape is allowed in this grade. No writing on the front of the poster is allowed in this grade, however, writing on the back of the poster that DOES NOT BLEED THROUGH is acceptable in this grade. Minor tears are allowed in this grade, but they should be MINOR, meaning less than 1" in length, and not more than two total tears on the item. Common areas for tears on posters are at the folds, especially the interior folds where the item may have been unfolded and then refolded. This kind of minor paper separation (tear) is common and is allowable in a C8 grade notwithstanding other extenuating circumstances. Should the item have minor paper loss, such as a small piece missing from a corner or interior fold, it should not be given a C8 rating. A corner crease (1/2" or less) or two can be present, but numerous creases affecting the image are not allowed in this grade.  (TOP)

VERY GOOD to EXCELLENT (C7) - Often referred to as Fine condition. Still a very nicely preserved item. Typically, an item in this grade is almost a C8, but one or two unsightly flaws, or heavier than normal fold wear or pinholes, or one small piece of tape on a corner, cause the item to be assigned the C7 designation rather than C8. Heavy damp stains eliminate the item from this grade. However, a minor damp stain on an unobtrusive part of the poster could be allowed. A window card with the top 4 inch blank area trimmed away should not be rated higher than C7, even if in otherwise C9 condition.  (TOP)

VERY GOOD (C6) - Often referred to as "Very Good" condition or "Condition B." The typical used poster in average condition. A sound example, although with wear and defects to be expected of an item that was intended to be used and re-used. Unusual problems should be described. The poster can have slight browning of paper but not brittleness or flaking; it may also have a small amount of writing in some unobtrusive portion of the poster. Minor border repair, edge tears, stains, or other signs of average use could be present. Eye appeal of the image area should be good. Minor soiling could be present. Larger posters could have minor fold tears (length of which should be described); also normal folds, creases, minor fold tears, possible repaired tear (from the back). Professional major restoration is acceptable in this grade. The poster should be complete and if not, major problems should be described (such as paper replacement). In every case, paper replacement and major color touchup and restoration should be described in detail. Tape anywhere on the poster should be mentioned and described. Small pen markings on the front can be present if noted, but not if large, heavy, or if affecting the eye appeal of the image. Sun-fading on the poster should be described, and if significant, should prevent the example from being in this grade. Heavy insect or rodent damage is not allowable in this grade. Amateur color touchup with colored markers is allowable in this grade. Common flaws that relegate an item to this grade include heavy fold wear, unusually large number of pinholes or staple holes, taped corners or fold lines reinforced with tape, minor tears, possibly minor paper loss (pieces missing) from the edges, edge fraying and so on. Because posters were so often used and reused, the C6 grade is common.  (TOP)

GOOD to VERY GOOD (C5) - A heavily-worn item, showing significant signs of use such as multiple pinholes or staple holes, tape, tears, soiling, pieces missing, small markings or pen/pencil marks. Although this is an "in-between" grade and difficult to distinguish from a C6, items are relegated to this lower classification when there is a greater number of general flaws than would normally be expected in the higher grade, or when one major flaw makes the C6 grade unacceptable.  (TOP)

GOOD (C4) - Below average but still suitable for display. Heavily used, with significant signs of use that affect the overall eye appeal of the piece. Small pieces may be missing from the borders (should be described). Image area will usually have minor defects that may impinge upon the graphics. Could have tape, writing, or tears. Numerous pinholes and resulting tears could be present. Complete, but graphics are face-worn.  (TOP)

FAIR (C3) - Often referred to as Fair condition, or Condition D. Heavily worn, but yet still complete  (TOP)

POOR to FAIR (C2) - An extremely worn, possibly even incomplete item.  (TOP)

POOR (C1) - The lowest grade, representing items in the lowest possible condition. Heavily damaged, possibly missing large pieces, possibly brittle and crumbling. Except for valuable rarities, items in this grade have little or no value.  (TOP)
 

 
COMMON TERMS OF GRADING
(From L.A.M.P. Website)

The condition/grade that is assigned to a particular movie poster is based on the existence or lack thereof of certain blemishes that are commonly found on movie art.

Since movie art was designed as dispensable advertising materials, they were not handled like a "collectible." Many were stapled, taped, written on, hung in windows, and generally, just beaten around until they were discarded. It is amazing that any survived to make it to the collector's market. Unfortunately, many of the survivors bear the scars of their journey.

The most common blemishes/defects are as follows:

Assessing the condition of movie art is subjective and so unfortunately there are no "carved-in-stone" rules for grading the condition of posters. There are, however, three generally accepted "grading systems" that are used by most collectors/dealers to determine the condition of a movie poster. There is a fourth grading system that is used by auction houses. Because there are no set standards, grades can vary among the parties doing the assessing.  (TOP)

 
BLEED-THROUGHS / SEE-THROUGHS

A bleed-through occurs when writing (particularly markers), other marks or stains that are on the back of the poster are absorbed into the paper and are then seen on the front.

A see-through occurs when tape, marks or stains, mostly writing on the back side of the poster, particularly with a black grease pencil, can be "seen" on the front of the poster but has not been absorbed into the paper.

A see-through can generally only be seen if the poster is held up to the light, but a bleed-through can be seen on the front in any light or position.

The location, size and prominence of the bleed-through as seen on the front will determine how much value the poster loses. If the bleed-through occurs on the border, the value of the poster in not affected as much as if it occurs on the artwork.

CAUSES

Some bleed-throughs and see-throughs occur because theatre managers used the backside of posters as "bulletin boards." They placed posters in the windows of the theatres and used the back side of the poster (the side which was seen from the inside of the theatre) to write information such as coming attractions and show times, or to tape other pictures or notes on the back of the poster. In order for the writing to be visible from a distance, heavy markers were used thus creating either a bleed-through or a see-through blemish.

Some bleed-throughs and see-throughs are the result of using different types of tape to repair holes or tears in the poster. Some adhesive tapes are very acidic, and the acid will eventually eat through the poster. Less acidic tapes may not actually bleed through the paper, but can create see-throughs.

If bleed-throughs are the result of an alcohol-based marker (such as a 'Magic Marker'), the mark is absorbed into the color fiber of the poster. The only way to correct this type of bleed-through is to remove the mark through a controlled bleaching process, and then the color re-added to the pigment of the area of the poster where the original color was bleached out. Only a professional restorer should do this.

Tape can sometimes be removed through a continuous controlled washing and flushing process. A professional, too, should only attempt this.

Since see-throughs can only be seen when there is light behind the poster, to eliminate the 'shadow' effect of a see-through, simply frame the poster and eliminate the light source.
 
It always best to leave any repairs to a professional restorer. 
(TERMS)

 
CREASES

Creases are embedded lines that are created by pressing, misfolding or crinkling paper or card stock materials. THIS DOES NOT INCLUDE FOLD LINES THAT ARE FOUND ON PRE-1980íS MATERIALS!

Some collectors misclassify wrinkles with creases; wrinkles are not as deep or as damaging as creases. Creases go deeper into the paper and can actually take away the color leaving a white space. Wrinkles are more surface defects and normally do not take away the color or leave white marks.

This is particularly obvious with post-1970's materials which are clay-coated. Creases will actually break through the clay coating and into the color, whereas wrinkles do not. BUT, unfortunately, because of the mishandling, creases and combined with wrinkles so both are present on the poster.

CAUSES

Creases are most commonly the result of mishandling, improper folding, improper storage, and lack of care in moving the poster.

IMPACT ON POSTER VALUE

Creases impact a poster's overall value, depending on how many there are and where they are located. Creases in the border would have little or no affect; creases on the artwork would have limited impact, depending on the number and severity.

For more information, see GRADING

REPAIRS

The paper can usually be straightened out either utilizing a heavy duty clothes steamer or a heat press. Even though it is a simple process, care should be taken anytime one is handling a poster. Most frame shops have a heat press for straightening out the wrinkles that occur in storing posters. This will help but will not eliminate the crease mark.

The actual crease mark will leave a white mark (which is the paper below) where the color has cracked or is missing. Most collectors do not have the expertise to fill in these white spots, so this should normally be done by a professional restorer.  (TERMS)

A poster is considered faded when it loses either part or all of its color and/or detail in the artwork.

CAUSES

Fading occurs as the result of a poster being exposed to direct sunlight for long period of time, such as being hung in a window.

IMPACT ON POSTER VALUE

Fading is considered a serious poster defect, and the degree and size of the faded area has a direct impact on the value of the poster. As with all other defects, if the artwork is unaffected and the fading appears on the background or border, the poster's value is not significantly diminished. However, if the colors and graphics of the artwork show signs of fading, then the value of the poster will be affected proportionately. SEE GRADING FOR MORE INFORMATION!

REPAIRING

Faded posters can be restored to original color by a professional poster restorer who literally repaints the faded areas of the poster.
 
It always best to leave any repairs to a professional restorer.  
(TERMS)

 
DRILL HOLES

At times promotions are done where posters are pasted on old buildings around town. When such a promotion is done, the posters are given over to an independent contractor to do the midnight pasting. But before they are given out, normally orders are given to mark them. One of the major ways that they are marked is, they literally take a drill and drill a hole thru the stack of posters .

This hole can vary in size and location on the poster, but its normally between the size of a dime to the size of a quarter. This way the posters are easily detectible if they make it back on the market.

Value

This DRASTICALLY affects the value and most collectors won't accept it unless the itme has become rare or hard to find.

Repairs

Since the actual paper is gone, a professional restorer is needed to replace the paper and repaint over the hole. Usually the procedure is more expensive than the value of the poster warrants.

It always best to leave any repairs to a professional restorer.  
(TERMS)

 

 HOLES - PIN, STAPLES, CHEW, ETC.

A hole results when part of the poster is either torn partially away from the remainder of the poster, or when entire pieces of the poster are missing.

CAUSES

Holes occur for an endless variety of reasons. The more common causes are due to pins and staples which were used to display the poster in the theatre lobby. Other holes are the result of mishandling of the poster. Stored posters can attract a number of insects such as silverfish, worms, etc. which result in chew marks.

IMPACT ON POSTER VALUE

The location and size of the hole(s) will determine what affect, if any, it/they will have on the overall value of the poster. Holes that are on the border of the poster will not impact the value, generally speaking. Even small pieces that are missing from the poster, if they are on the border, will not have an affect.

However, holes or missing pieces of the poster that are located on the artwork itself is considered a major defect, and will therefore affect the overall value of the poster. SEE GRADING FOR MORE INFORMATION!

REPAIRS

If the paper is merely torn back from the poster but is still attached and intact, it can be gently pulled back into place and reattached by use of acid-free archival tape on the back side of the poster. The torn piece may be wrinkled, so the wrinkles will have to gently be pulled out before reattaching.

Small pin holes can be repaired by placing acid-free archival tape on the back of the poster and coloring in the front of the tape to match the poster. Normally, the pin just pushes the paper aside as it penetrates making it fairly easy to repair.

Major holes can be restored by a professional poster restorer. Major holes can be repaired in a number of ways, such as filling the hole with a painting material called gesso which is applied and then sanded down, or by linen or paper backing.

For larger holes, the restorer normally has to find a paper match from a similar poster, bleach it and attach it to your poster and repaint the paper.
 
It always best to leave any repairs to a professional restorer.  
(TERMS)

 
MARKS

A mark is defined as any blemish on the front of the poster caused by pens, markers, grease pencils, regular pencils, crayons, or any other type of writing device.

CAUSES

Most marks found on posters were put there intentionally. Mustaches and devilís horns may be found on the faces of leading men and ladies. Scribble marks, doodles and other "color additions" at the hands of amateur artists can be found on posters.

IMPACT ON POSTER VALUE

Marks that are found on the border of a poster do not affect the value. Marks of any kind that deface the artwork of the poster are considered serious blemishes and will severely affect the poster's value. Marks that are located on the back of the poster are not considered a defect, unless they result in a bleed-through or see-through. SEE GRADING FOR MORE INFORMATION!

REPAIRS

There are a number of options available when repairing marks on posters, depending on whether the marks are old or new.

If the mark was made by an older fountain pen, an ink eradicator may be used to remove it. Ink eradicator is a type of bleach - when the mark is removed, so is the color. Thus, the area where the ink eradicator is used would have to be colored back in.

If the mark is the result of indelible ink or a ballpoint pen, it cannot be bleached out. The marks would then have to be removed by a professional restorer.

Pencil marks can be removed with the use of a yellow brick art gum eraser. The art gum eraser is very soft and crumbly. Regular pen and pencil erasers will not only remove the mark, it will also remove all color. A REGULAR PEN OR PENCIL ERASER SHOULD NEVER BE USED TO REMOVE ANY TYPE OF MARKS.

Since removing marks from the artwork of a poster almost always results in the loss of color, it is recommended that the removal of marks be done by a professional.  (TERMS)

 
STAINS

A stain results when water or other liquids, oils, dirt, etc. are either spilled or ground into the poster.

CAUSES

Stains are normally the result of accident spills, mishandling, improper storage or, in some cases, intentional or accident misuse or abuse.

IMPACT ON POSTER VALUE

Stains that are present on the border of a poster do not impact the value. However, if the stains occur on the artwork of the poster, they are considered serious blemishes and will severely affect the poster's value. Stains that are found on the back of the poster are not considered a defect, unless they result in a bleed-through or see-through that can be seen on the front of the poster. SEE GRADING FOR MORE INFORMATION!

REPAIRS

Water stains and some other liquid and/or chemical stains can be removed by bleaching/washing the poster. However, this process is extremely delicate and precise because it involves dampening the poster. Because paper is very susceptible when wet, this process MUST BE DONE BY A PROFESSIONAL RESTORER.

Some direct stains can be removed by a damp cloth, carefully applied to the poster. Posters with stubborn dirt stains should be taken to a professional restorer where different chemicals can be used to clean the poster.

If there is an ink stain, such as that from an older fountain pen, an ink eradicator can be used to remove the stain. Ink eradicator is a type of bleach, so when the stain is removed, so is the color on the poster. The area where the ink eradicator is applied would have to be colored in.

If the stain is the result of indelible ink or newer ballpoint pens, it cannot be bleached out. THESE STAINS WOULD HAVE TO BE REMOVED BY A PROFESSIONAL RESTORER.

Pencil stains can be removed with the use of a yellow brick art gum eraser. The art gum eraser is very soft and crumbly. Regular pen and pencil erasers will not only remove the stain, it will also remove all color. A REGULAR PEN OR PENCIL ERASER SHOULD NEVER BE USED TO REMOVE ANY TYPE OF stains.

Since removing stains from the artwork of a poster almost always results in the loss of color, IT IS HIGHLY RECOMMENDED THAT THE REMOVAL OF SUCH STAINS BY DONE BY A PROFESSIONAL POSTER RESTORER ONLY.  (TERMS)

 
TAPE

This is one of the most common but also one of the most mis-understood problem with posters. Tape is so common that the culprit could be anyone who has handled the poster.... even some COLLECTORS are guilty of using common tape to try to do a 'quick fix' on a tear. Let's take a little closer look at the situation:

TYPES

Household and commercial tapes come in a WIDE variety of types and sizes from common Scotch tape to masking tape (I've even seen DUCT tape on the back of some posters).

Most types of tape use a very acidic adhesive. The problem is that you can't SEE the acid. You wouldn't sit and watch insects chew away at your poster....... BUT even though you can's SEE the damage occurring, the acid is slowly EATING away at your poster just like an insect. AND what's even worse...... unlike insects, when you remove the tape..... the acid normally continues to EAT YOUR POSTER!!

IMPACT ON POSTER VALUE

Tape will greatly impact a poster's overall value, depending on the kind of tape, how much and where it's located. Tape in the border would have little affect; BUT anywhere in the artwork could be very damaging.

For more information, see GRADING

REPAIRS

The problem is that just removing the tape doesn't stop the acid so it's usually best done by a professional restorer. Some restorers use a soaking solution to rinse the tape residue off the poster, while others use Naptha.
 
It always best to leave any repairs to a professional restorer.  
(TERMS)

 
TEARS

A tear occurs when a part of the poster is separated from the remainder of the poster.

CAUSES

Most tears occur in the area of the fold lines. When posters have been folded and unfolded a number of times, pressure is placed on the fold lines and this can sometimes lead to separations or tears. Tears can also be the result of mishandling or poor storage.

IMPACT ON POSTER VALUE

The location and size of the tears will determine what impact it will have on the overall value of the poster. If the tears are on the border of the poster, they will not impact the value. If the tear affects the artwork of the poster, the value of the poster will be decreased. SEE GRADING FOR MORE INFORMATION!

REPAIRS

Most tears, particularly those alone the fold lines, can be repaired by re-adhering the tear with the use of non-acid archival tape on the back side of the poster. NOT SCOTCH, MASKING OR ANY OTHER TYPE OF HOUSEHOLD TAPE.

We recommend an Archival Document Repair Tape that is released by Lineco. It's easy to handle, non-acidic, can be removed, and almost invisible. You don't normally use that much at a time so one box usually last quite a while.

Bags Unlimited has this item in stock if you don't have access to any.

It always best to leave any repairs to a professional restorer.   (TERMS)

 
FOLDS/FOLD LINES

Folds and/or the fold lines resulting from folding in a poster are not necessarily considered a "defect". Whether or not a fold/fold line affects the value depends on several factors.

WHEN FOLDS/FOLD LINES ARE ACCEPTABLE

Advertising materials released prior to the mid-1980ís were machine folded and mailed flat to the local movie distributors/exhibitors. One sheets were folded horizontally in half twice , then once vertically. Inserts were normally folded in half and then in half again. Half-sheets were folded in half and then quartered. Larger sizes were folded down until they were approximately 11" x 14' in size.

Machine folds are normally very crisp and straight. Since these materials were distributed this way intentionally by the studios, collectors do not consider machine folds/fold lines for pre-1980ís materials to be defects.

Post-1980ís materials present another side. Most, BUT NOT ALL, materials from this time period were shipped ROLLED to the theatres. However, some materials are still shipped folded Ė even today. Therefore, if the poster was initially machine folded for shipping purposes, regardless of the year released, then folds/fold lines are not considered a defect.

WERE ALL PRE-80's POSTERS FOLDED

When posters were printed, a batch would be pre-folded for shipping. The remainder, quite often, was stored flat. Then, as more was needed to be shipped, another batch would be sent to the folding machines. The folding was due to the fact that it was the most economical way of shipping the poster to the theater.

If a theater owner would come by to pick up their posters, sometimes they could get a rolled poster instead. This seems to have created a lot of controversy in the poster collecting community. However, the majority of the pre-1980's posters found on the market will be folded. When a rolled one is found, it DOES NOT mean that it's not real, it is usually a cause to take a closer look at the poster to make sure that it's not a fake.

WHEN FOLDS/FOLD LINES ARE NOT ACCEPTABLE

Any size poster that has been folded BY HAND generally results in a negative affect on the poster. While machine folds are generally crisp and clean, hand folds are not. In addition, if a poster was initially machine-folded, and then another fold was added by hand, the additional fold/fold lines would be detrimental to the value of the poster.

Folds/fold lines that are found on the smaller card stock materials, particularly lobby cards, are generally the cause of mishandling. Lobby cards were small enough to be mailed to the distributors without being folded; therefore there is no "acceptable" reason for folds/fold lines on lobby cards.

Window cards were normally sent flat because of their size. Some distributors folded them in half before mailing. If the window card is machine folded for shipping, then there is no adverse affect on the value of the poster. Inserts were generally sent to the theatres rolled so a fold/fold line would have a negative affect on the value. There were a number of inserts which were machine folded before being shipped. In this case, the fold/fold lines would not have an adverse affect on the value of the poster.

CAN FOLD LINES BE REPAIRED?

Fold lines can generally be diminished by carefully following a steaming/drying process. The fold lines are first steamed out by utilizing a heavy duty clothes steamer. Once the foid lines are moist, a soft clamp is used to anchor one side of the fold line. The other side of the fold line is then gently pulled out. Once the fold has been pulled out, a hair dryer is then used to dry the moist area. Please note that this process may leave a "mark" due to dirt that has accumulated in the fold.

Some poster shops use a heat press to diminish fold lines. These work similar in nature to the devices used by drycleaners to remove wrinkles from clothes.

Note that there are dangers in a non-professional attempting this process It must be done delicately Once the poster is moist, it can easily be pulled apart if too much pressure is applied. During the drying process, if too much tension is applied, the poster can become warped. The only way to correct a warped poster is through linen backing.

It always best to leave any repairs to a professional restorer.   (TERMS)

 
TRIMMED MOVIE POSTERS

Trimming results when pieces of the border of the poster are cut or shaved off.

CAUSES

Trimming is almost always an intentional act which is normally done to either reduce the poster to a smaller size, particularly for framing purposes; to intentionally remove the credit information from the poster's artwork; or to remove some type of border defect.

IMPACT ON POSTER VALUE

Posters SHOULD NEVER be trimmed, as this is considered a serious defect and significantly affects the value of the poster.

Trimming commonly occurs on window cards, where the blank borders which were designed for use by theatres to put show dates and times is cut off.

It is also common when framing a poster where the frame is slightly smaller than the poster, OR some dealers use this to eliminate some border damage. Even though if it is done only in the border, it doesn't have quite the same impact as trimming into the artwork. SEE GRADING FOR MORE INFORMATION!

REPAIRS

Professional poster restorers can restore a trimmed poster through a linen backing process.   (TERMS)

 
WRINKLES

Wrinkles are lines that are created by pressing, folding or crinkling paper or card stock materials. They are usually not as embedded as creases. Some collectors misclassify wrinkles with creases; wrinkles are not as deep or as damaging as creases. Creases go deeper into the paper and can actually take away the color leaving a white space. Wrinkles are more surface defects and normally do not take away the color or leave white marks. This is particularly obvious with post-1970's materials which are clay-coated. Creases will actually break through the clay coating and into the color, whereas wrinkles do not.

CAUSES

Wrinkles are most commonly the result of mishandling, such as rolling posters with rubber bands, laying things on top of them, grasping them too tightly, bumping the edges, etc.

IMPACT ON POSTER VALUE

Wrinkles have a minor affect on a poster's overall value, depending on how many there are and where they are located. This is due to the fact that most wrinkles can be easily steamed out. Wrinkles in the border would have little or no affect; wrinkles on the artwork would have limited impact, depending on the number and severity. SEE GRADING FOR MORE INFORMATION!

REPAIRS

Most wrinkles can be removed by either utilizing a heavy duty clothes steamer or a heat press. Even though it is a simple process, care should be taken anytime one is handling a poster. Most frame shops have a heat press for straightening out the wrinkles that occur in storing posters. (TERMS)


BORDERS

The area located around, but not a part of, the artwork of a poster is generally considered its border. Most often the border is white, but in some cases black strips are present around the outer edge of the poster. Sometimes, there are only top or bottom borders, or borders just on the sides. In other cases, a poster will have no obvious border whatsoever. All movie paper sizes include the area considered the border. For example, the older one-sheet is normally sized 27" x 41", which includes the border area. If the border is trimmed from the poster, it is no longer 27" x 41".

Since the mid-1980's, a growing number of studios are opting to bleed the picture artwork all the way to the edge of the paper on the one sheet, thus eliminating the border. To do this, printers have to shorten the poster, so most newer one sheets now measure 27" x 40" and do not have a visible border. Before this time, the majority of all one sheets were 27" x 41". Most one-sheets released today measure 27" x 40" WITHOUT A BORDER.

DOES IT AFFECT THE VALUE OF A POSTER?

Since the border of a poster is NOT considered to be part of the artwork, common blemishes generally do not have a negative impact on the value of a poster. However, when these blemishes continue beyond the border and into the artwork, the value of the poster is affected. The degree to which the artwork is affected determines just how significantly the posterís value is affected.

Trimming the border also has a negative affect on the poster's value. Border damage should be repaired and/or framed out. Trimming is never recommended.  (TERMS)

  

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